The objective of the approach is to support situational awareness and enhance the decision making process by involving citizens in providing opinions and evaluations of potential response actions. Flood evacuation planning models are an important tool used in the preparation for flooding events. Authorities use the plans generated by flood evacuation models to evacuate the population as quickly as possible. Contemporary models consider the whole solution space and use a stochastic search to explore and produce solutions.
The one issue with stochastic approaches is that they cannot guarantee the optimality of the solution and it is important that the plans be of a high quality. In this paper, an alternative heuristically driven approach is proposed as an alternative avoiding this disadvantage completely. The determinism of the model means that the optimality of solutions found can be readily verified. Today, during fire compartments, decision-making rescue teams is mainly based on human decisions. During these interventions, the transition between a localized and generalized fire can take several forms.
One of the most important vectors in the propagation of fire compartments is the smoke due to its high temperature and the large amounts of energy it contains. Despite its extreme danger, smoke remains important to study because it conveys valuable information.
To carry out this study, a large-scale experimental cell with a hot-fueled propane-fired burner will be used. The smoke dynamics is analyzed using non-intrusive measurement techniques such as Particle Image Velocity and Laser Induced Incandescence. Automated planning is a domain of Artificial Intelligence which aims to study the deliberation process used to choose and organize actions by anticipating their expected outcomes.
In this paper, we discuss the use of automated planning techniques in crisis management contexts. To begin with, the crisis management planning problem is formalized in light of the conceptual model for automated planning. In addition, we describe the conceptual scheme of an information system generating action plans in order to support decision-makers in crisis management.
Finally, a proof of concept implementation of the aforementioned system is presented. May 23, — Room 0A This paper is about how artefacts are used in the process of creating a common operational picture COP during large police operations. The research is based upon Ethnographical field studies. Based upon the five separate studies, the artefacts studied are found to be very important as collaborative tools.
This paper reports on a qualitative study exploring personal crises that emerge during transitions. Personal crises, like crises caused by natural disasters, often lead to new behaviors and opportunities for technology appropriation and design. Finally, we develop the concept of identity creep to explicate these translation-breakdowns. Piccolo, Lara S. During emergency crises it is imperative to collect, organise, analyse and share critical information between individuals and humanitarian organisations.
Although different models and platforms have been created for helping these particular issues, existing work tend to focus on only one or two of the previous matters. We propose the DoRES ontology for representing information sources, consolidating it into reports and then, representing event situation based on reports. Our approach is guided by the analysis of 1 the structure of a widely used situation awareness platform; 2 stakeholder interviews, and; 3 the structure of existing crisis datasets.
Based on this, we extract different competency questions that are then used for specifying and implementing the new three-tiers crisis model.https://ignamant.cl/wp-includes/54/1802-rastrear-celular.php
Social media crisis management-Communications by Tony Ridley - video dailymotion
We show that the model can successfully be used for mapping the different competency questions to the classes, properties and relations of the implemented ontology. In one of the most influential papers in the history of Software Engineering, L. Osterweil analyzed the nature of both software and software development processes to conclude that the latter shared many characteristics with the former and, as a consequence, software development principles and techniques could be applied in the definition and exploitation of processes.
Here, we do an imitation exercise to claim that emergency plans are advanced software artifacts and, hence, modern software development principles, methods, techniques and tools can be used in their development and enactment.
We advocate for a change of paradigm in which the idea of emergency plans as text-based documents is replaced by that of active, complex digital objects with state and behavior that drive emergency response processes, and also several preparedness activities such as drills and training exercises. These new plans are the result of a systematic process we call Emergency Plan Engineering. Social media use in emergency communication by Italian local level institutions by Comunello, Francesca; Mulargia, Simone May 24, — Amphi 2.
We discuss the results of a research project aimed at exploring the use of social media in emergency communication by officers operating at a local level. We performed 16 semi-structured interviews with national level expert informants, and with officers operating at the municipality and province prefectures level in an Italian region. Social media usage appears distributed over a continuum of engagement, ranging from very basic usage to using social media by adopting a broadcasting approach, to deeper engagement, which also includes continuous interaction with citizens. Among the main barriers to a broader adoption of social media, cultural considerations seem to prevail, along with the lack of personnel, a general concern toward social media communication reliability, and the perceived distance between the formal role of institutions and the informal nature of social media communication.
Rio Operations Center COR was the leading agency of Rio de Janeiro Prefecture responsible for the monitoring the Rio Olympic and Paralympic Games operations, due to its role in the prevention, monitoring, mobilization, communication, and, constant learning on the operations risk management of public services. Through data collected by direct observations, interviews, internal documents and access to the systems and software from COR, the planning and preparation of the IT Infrastructure and monitoring teams for the Games are analyzed.
The paper explores how the systems and monitoring teams were developed and the use planned for the games, stressing the relevance of different aggregative software and the Planning Team for the integration and the communication among teams. The complete analysis of the integrated operations of the data collected during the Games is expected to be presented in a future paper.
Crowdsourced Geographic Information CGI has emerged as a potential source of geographic information in different application domains. Despite the advantages associated with it, this information lacks quality assurance, since it is provided by different people.
Therefore, several authors have started investigating different methods to assess the quality of CGI. Some of the existing methods have been summarized in different classification scheme. However, there is not an overview of the methods employed to assess the quality of CGI in the absence of authoritative data. On the basis of a systematic literature review, we found 13 methods that can be employed to this end. The aftereffects of disaster events are significant in tourist destinations where they do not only lead to destruction and casualties, but also long-lasting economic harms.
The public perception causes tourists to refrain from visiting these areas and recovery of the tourist industry, a major economic sector, to become challenging.
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An alternative data source that has shown great potential for information gathering in other disaster management phases, which was less considered for disaster recovery purposes, is Volunteered Geographic Information VGI. Therefore, this paper introduces a VGI-based methodology to address this task. Initial analyses conducted with Flickr data indicate a potential of VGI for recovery monitoring, whereas the analysis of OpenStreetMap data shows, that this form of VGI requires further quality assurance.
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Most of these systems have remained inside the lab; the rest have disappeared entirely. Responders still prefer to do triage with paper tags from the 's, while no research has been presented on why the proposed e-triage systems have not found acceptance and use in the field.
Based on exhaustive literature research and on the findings from the four-year long EU research project anonymized , this paper presents e-triage acceptance dimensions, analyzes the main reasons why proposed systems have been rejected, and guides designers towards upcoming, well-accepted e-triage systems. Natural and man-made hazards have many unexpected consequences that concern as many heterogeneous services.
For now, its best chance is to benefit from the ever growing number of available data sources. One of its goals is, therefore, to learn how to manage numerous, heterogeneous, more or less reliable data, in order to interpret them, in time, for the officials. The result consists on a situation model in the shape of a common operational picture.
This paper describes every stage of modelling from the raw data selection, to the use of the situation model itself. In emergency domain, experts must make decisions both usual and unusual.
These decisions lead to unpredictable impacts, causing the need for these experts to deal with impacts mitigation. Unexpected need of impacts mitigation consists in an overload of material resources and expert cognitive capacity. After decision making, impacts mitigation demands valuable expert efforts.
To address this problem, this paper proposes a decision impact projection in early stages of emergency management, during planning stage. Through the proposed method, PIED Framework was developed, contributing for the characterization of impact projection in emergency environments. May 23, — Amphi 1. In the years following Chernobyl, many reports and projects reflected on how to improve emergency management processes in dealing with an accidental offsite release of radiation at a nuclear facility.
Crisis analytics: big data-driven crisis response
A common observation was the need to address the inevitable uncertainties. Suggestions were made and some were researched in some depth. The Fukushima Daiichi Disaster has led to further reflections. However, many uncertainties inherent in responding to a threatened or actual release remain unaddressed in the analyses that are conducted to support the emergency managers in their decision making.
They are often left to factor in allowances for the uncertainty through informal discussion and unsupported judgement. The organizers of crisis management exercises want scenario credible and pedagogical from the beginning until the end. For this reason, they call on an animation team that can use different communication channels. The aim of this article is to understand the different types of animation by analyzing the professional experience of the facilitators and the type of casting that can be done.
Finally, a definition of four levels of animation is proposed. These levels are associated with different types of messages and rhythm settings. The main objective is to improve the execution of the scenario during a crisis management training. Recent events have demonstrated the vulnerability of IT-systems of different companies, organisations or even governments to hacker attacks.
Simultaneously, information technologies have become increasingly established and important for institutions of various branches. With respect to modern terrorism developments, cyber-attacks may be used to physically harm critical infrastructures. This research-in-progress paper aims to develop a process model for data acquisition and support of decision making that seeks to enhance the security of public transportation in the context of counterterrorism.
Related Social Media Technologies for Business Intelligence: Crisis, Security Travel and Emergency
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