To the first category we could attribute some new interpretations in terms of industrial design, such as wind turbines 9 and electricity pylons.
The hybridization method aims at returning energy artefacts to the city and transforming them into inhabited objects, with different usage possibilities other than simple productive functionality. A sort of reconciliation and humanization, which not only filter through the overcoming of anodyne envelopes, but also introduce both the perceptive and the real fruition of new spaces and more or less public functions.
A similar process can be recognized on a larger planning scale of public space, whether urban or not, where the plant system is integrated with other services and equipment—from furniture to sport—but still retains a specific formal value. Infrastructures thus become the object of artistic manufacturing in land art 11 or landscape design 12 works. Projects where form prevails over function are the key elements for acceptability and social consensus towards the alteration of the existent. They represent potential references, but partially encourage technological innovation of materials and components which need a higher demand for mass-production instead.
On the contrary, in this respect the component design could be implemented on broad, scarcely explored land. These approaches and lines of research help determining a slow cultural change closely interrelated with technological innovation, which on the contrary manifests itself basically within the specific field of materials and techniques aimed at energy production.
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A possible exception might be organic photovoltaic OPV : 13 even though here the high application flexibility exceeds the static and algid appearance of the polycrystalline cell and meets planning integration needs, developing such a solution would be a step towards a reduction of production costs, which undoubtedly pose an important economic restriction for the spreading of renewable energies Arunachalam and Fleischer However, on the other hand, the definitive supersession of fossil fuels would be an epochal change taking decades.
On the contrary, in other cases such as the biomass case we can also speak of isolated plants, even larger ones, which have pervasive effects on the agricultural landscape as a system, in terms of both a change in cultivations and the correlated social and economic model. These plants have been arranged on the basis of climate potentials, 16 according to a very different logic if compared to the past; although this could disrupt the existing geopolitical balance, 17 the scope of widespread production as an innovative way of using renewable energies is just as revolutionary Merchant This production model is widely patronized by govern policies at international level.
Its great success, also with regard to economic perspectives Klose et al. Such innovation 2. The development perspectives of this innovation focus both on the enhancement of control software and networks and especially, in terms of cost and time efficiency, on the implementation of storage batteries in order to overcome the Achilles heel of these widespread renewable energies: that is, the occasional availability caused by climate and time conditions. The development and improvement of microgeneration especially in the built environment certainly requires a paradigm shift in the relationship between served buildings and servant infrastructures, also blurring the boundaries between private and public spaces as well as ownership in urban contexts.
Accordingly, a new role and approach for design is entailed, in addition to the maturing of a specific new language to integrate the innovative plants in the existing buildings. The increase of building services equipment and infrastructures, as a result of a widespread production, becomes a new layer to be added to the urban landscape, occupying public as well as private areas, especially in dense settlements. Therefore, also the design of public and open spaces will face a general rethinking in order to encompass the new energy infrastructures not as anodyne and alien service objects to be necessarily introduced in existing areas, but as multifunctional devices, to be integrated in order to enhance the usability, the liveability as well as the beauty of urban public spaces, once more, putting into practice the hybridisation approach.
However, it may also prove a tool able to modify its perception, making use of shared ways of the transformation process. A new specific discipline called environmental aesthetic identifies one of the keys of positive aesthetic judgement—thus linked to a kind of assessment which is functionalist rather than ethic 18 —in a both multisensory and rational involvement lying in the comprehension of transformation reasons. In this regard, the participation to transformation—both direct and in terms of democratization of the decision-making process, as well as of socialization of the reasons behind choices and objectives—could help the inhabitants of a landscape to love it Selman and to create consensus.
Surely this approach is valid also in the case of top-down decision-making processes, with regard to the building of large plants and the definition of energy policies in general. Such innovations in the economic and regulatory reference scenario would provide an essential boost to the current tax relief scheme. The design contribution, in fact, through a multidisciplinary and integrated collaboration of diverse competences should be introduced at the strategic level of the process development, with the purpose of deepening the analysis of the different economic, environmental, social and institutional features of the specific landscape in relationship with the possible new renewable energy plants intervention.
An integration in terms of multifunctionality Ginelli and Daglio and hybridisation should be explored and evaluated with the aid of participatory processes engaging the different stakeholders to let them mature a deeper knowledge and awareness of the landscape they inhabit in order to be involved actively in the decision making task.
A new landscape representation paradigm emerges, also through the localization of a meeting and synthesis point between landscapes—along with their intrinsic character and local specificity resulting from geographical and historical conditions—and energy as industrial product, whose characteristics tend to homogenization, seriality and indifference towards the place Nadai and Van Der Horst Maybe we should just change perspective, interpret the appearance of architecture and landscape and try to spot materiality as a temporary expression of energy Moe Such design has to imbue not only strictly disciplinary contexts, 20 but also the creation of governance policies and models based on qualitative and inclusive soul.
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The project, coordinated by Professor Livio de Santoli from the Sapienza University of Rome and completed in , replaced the tiles facing south with solar panels. The intervention was carried out with particular regard to the aspects concerning perception and visual impact: in fact, it is invisible from the street and only partially visible from the cupola. A controversial example, both from the perspective of the project management and the concept itself, is the newly founded green city Dongtan near Shanghai.
The project by Arup studio should have been concluded for Expo , but was never carried out. It transforms the photovoltaic field generated inside the Buffalo University campus in a giant land art installation, which can be enjoyed like an open-air park and visited to promote education and the development of awareness towards renewable energies.
The first major architectural project experimenting with the integration of organic photovoltaic technology was the German pavilion at Expo in Milan. Suffice it to think about the development perspectives of offshore plants wind and tides or solar energy which concentrate in the desert areas of the planet. Renewable energies based on solar radiation as a direct or indirect source and on tides.
Just think of Desertec Project, developed since by the Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Cooperation TREC —a voluntary organization founded in by the Club of Rome and National Energy Research Center Jordan for renewable energy production from sites where sources are, due to their own nature, more available e.
In this new particular respect we can still speak of alternative energies as opposed to the large fossil energy monopolies. Such functional fit ensures that landscapes created by human transformation possess an aesthetic, in which culture and nature share the same necessity, appearing as they are and not as mere results of fruition or artistic construction Carlson , Nature and Landscape: an Introduction to Environmental Aesthetics , Columbia University Press, New York.
Condominium institution is particularly opposed, despite its significant spreading within the national context due to both the conservatism deriving from property fragmentation and the impossibility to become a prosumer unless relying on a third party dealing with intermediation in the energy market.
LD contributed for the taxonomy of the interpretative models, and the drafting of the second part of the article. EG critically revised the contents adding significant contribution to the methodological approach of the research. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. City, Territory and Architecture December , Cite as. The architecture of energy systems between technological innovation and environment.
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Open Access. First Online: 17 October Energy as a driving force behind landscape transformation Energy has been one of the main driving forces behind landscape transformation since ancient times Pasqualetti Acknowledgements Not applicable. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Availability of data and materials All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article.
Funding Not applicable. Angelucci F ed La costruzione del paesaggio energetico.
Franco Angeli, Milano Google Scholar. Carlson A Nature and landscape: an introduction to environmental aesthetics. Ciorra P ed Energy: architettura e reti del petrolio e del post-petrolio. Electa, Milano Google Scholar.https://telfoonofam.tk
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De Waal R, Stremke S Energy transition: missed opportunities and emerging challenges for landscape planning and designing. Sustainability — CrossRef Google Scholar. Ferrara G Renewable energy sources: side effects. I Quaderni di Careggi Google Scholar. Ginelli E, Daglio L Relationship between energy systems and landscape. In the twenty-first century it means our architects see their work as an ever-widening conversation, producing buildings that relate intuitively to the world they join. Demand for our architecture services continues to increase worldwide. Nothing but the name is changed.
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