In some classrooms, where Jews were still present, a Jewish child would be brought to the front of the class as an example. The teacher would then use a pointer, highlighting certain facial characteristics.
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Hitler Youth songs also contained anti-Semitic lyrics including one song that said: "Yes, when the Jewish blood splashes from the knives, things will go twice as well. There were eventually ten Adolf Hitler Schools which took boys at age 12 from the Jungvolk and provided six years of intensive, highly disciplined leadership training under Spartan-like conditions, in place of a regular education. Top rated graduates of these schools were eligible for the exclusive Ordensburgen for another three years of training after which they would be ready to assume high level positions in the Nazi Party.
It was from these Ordensburgen, steeped in Teutonic mythology, that Hitler hoped would emerge a "violently active, dominating, brutal youth Throughout Germany, the entire teaching profession all the way up to university level had been purged of Jewish professors and anyone deemed politically unreliable regardless of their proven teaching abilities or achievements, including Nobel Prize recipients. Teachers who remained in the college classroom lived under the constant fear they might be denounced by one of their students and wind up in a concentration camp.
This insecurity resulted in gross academic timidity which further lowered educational standards. National Socialist teachers of questionable ability stepped into grammar school and high school classrooms to form young minds, strictly abiding by the Party motto: "The supreme task of the schools is the education of youth for the service of Volk and State in the National Socialist spirit. Over the years, the Hitler Youth organization would gradually supplant the traditional elementary and secondary school system and become the main force educating German youth.
And the quality of that education only got worse. Students emerging from the elite Adolf Hitler Schools were in superb physical condition and thoroughly drilled in Nazi ideology, but lacked basic skills in math and science. Biology, for example, had been completely corrupted to advance Nazi racial doctrine.
Under Hitler, a school system once among the finest in the world, became substandard almost overnight. Nazi scientists, educated before Hitler, would later complain they were partially hindered in developing new super weapons by the recruitment of young graduates from the elite Nazi schools.
In , all of the Catholic parochial and Protestant denominational schools were abolished. Christian holy days which had usually meant a day off from school were now ignored and classroom prayers were banned. Celebrations of Christmas and Easter were discouraged, replaced by pre-Christian Yule or Solstice celebrations. The Nazis later forced all teachers to renounce any affiliation with professional church organizations.
Schirach's goal in was to enroll the entire population of ten-year-olds throughout Germany into the Hitler Youth as a present for Hitler on his 47th birthday. Called "The Year of the Jungvolk," enormous pressure was put on young children to join. In school, they were pressured by Nazi-affiliated teachers. At home and at play, they were aggressively pursued by individual Hitler Youths and also through neighborhood propaganda marches, meetings for parents, and special children's sing-a-longs. I am willing and ready to give up my life for him, so help me God.
After first joining the organization, the boys spent a few months on probation while undergoing training by older HJ members.
A test was then given in which they had to recite all the verses of the Horst Wessel Song and answer basic questions concerning Hitler's life and the history of the Nazi Party. They also had to prove physical fitness by running 60 meters in twelve seconds, and take part in a cross country hike lasting a day and a half. A Mutprobe courage test was then given such as jumping from a first or second story ledge into a large canvass held by older HJ. After passing all of the tests, each boy was entitled to wear the brown shirt bearing the Jungvolk insignia with a leather shoulder strap and the coveted Hitler Youth dagger bearing the inscription Blut und Ehre Blood and Honor.
On December 1st, , Hitler decreed "The Law concerning the Hitler Youth" which mandated that all young Germans excluding Jews would "be educated physically, intellectually and morally in the spirit of National Socialism" through the Hitler Youth from the age of ten onward.
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This law also effectively ended the Catholic Youth Organization which had managed to hold out for three years amid constant Nazi harassment. Parents who prevented their children from joining the Hitler Youth were subject to heavy prison sentences. Membership thus grew to nearly six million. As a result, the organization bloated into a giant bureaucracy in Berlin. It began to acquire the dreariness of a big governmental institution in marked contrast to the dynamic organization it had been in the s and early '30s when members risked their lives daily to bring Hitler to power.
The compulsory nature of weekly HJ meetings for everyone also led to a gradual decline in morale and discipline. To add more excitement, a new phase began for the Hitler Youth with increased emphasis on paramilitary training in direct association with the Wehrmacht Army , Luftwaffe Air Force and Navy. In , a Hitler Youth rifle school was then established.
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About 1. Special Hitler Youth paramilitary formations for boys eventually included: the Flieger-HJ in which aviation enthusiasts built gliders, participated in annual glider flying competitions, visited Luftwaffe facilities and went for rides in fighters and bombers; the Motor-HJ for boys 16 and older in which they acquired their driver's license and learned to ride motorcycles; and the Marine-HJ in which they obtained sailing certificates, learned river navigation, and participated in naval exercises aboard German training ships.
In , Hitler expanded Germany's borders by absorbing neighboring Austria and the Sudetenland western portion of Czechoslovakia with their large populations of ethnic Germans. As a result, Hitler Youth membership quickly swelled to 8. In September, the last peacetime Nuremberg rally took place.
It had the theme Grossdeutschland Greater Germany and was the largest one ever held, with nearly , members of various Nazi Party organizations participating during the week-long festival. On Saturday, September 10th, over 80, Hitler Youths marched into the city stadium and performed military-style parade maneuvers which they had been practicing for an entire year, ending with a grand finale in which they spelled out the name 'Adolf Hitler' in the grandstand. After a tumultuous welcome, Hitler gave a speech in which he spoke candidly about his own youth and painful adolescence and then ended by telling them: "You, my youth, are our nation's most precious guarantee for a great future, and you are destined to be the leaders of a glorious new order under the supremacy of National Socialism.
Never forget that one day you will rule the world! Police stood by and crowds watched as Jews were beaten while their shops and synagogues had their windows smashed and contents wrecked. Special pleasure was taken in the desecration of sacred religious scrolls.
Over 25, Jewish men between the ages of 18 and 65 were hauled off to concentration camps. Local Hitler Youths participated in the violence voluntarily but had not been officially instructed to do so. Schirach, on hearing of the extent of their participation, called a meeting of all high level group leaders and expressly forbade further participation in such "criminal actions. But the violence was just beginning.
Germany was on the path toward achieving Hitler's two main goals which he had outlined years earlier in Mein Kampf — the forced acquisition of living space to the east of Germany resulting in World War II and destruction of 'international Jewry' resulting in the Holocaust. Protect and preserve my life for long. You saved Germany in time of need.
I thank you for my daily bread. Hitler, in a somewhat cynical mood in , privately expressed his attitude toward them. When these boys enter our organization at the age of ten, it is often the first time in their lives that they get to breathe and feel fresh air; then four years later they come from the Jungvolk into the Hitler Youth, and we keep them there for another four years, and then we definitely don't put them back into the hands of the originators of our old classes and status barriers; rather we take them straight into the Party or into the Labor Front, the SA, or the SS, the NSKK [motorized corps] and so on.
And if they are there for another two years or a year and a half and still haven't become complete National Socialists, then they go into the Labor Service and are polished for another six or seven months, all with a symbol, the German spade. And any class consciousness or pride of status that may be left here and there is taken over by the Wehrmacht for further treatment for two years, and when they come back after two, three, or four years, we take them straight into the SA, SS, and so on again, so that they shall in no case suffer a relapse, and they will never be free again as long as they live.
By early , about 82 percent 7. A new law was issued on March 25, , conscripting any remaining holdouts into the organization amid warnings to parents that their children would be taken from them and placed in orphanages unless they enrolled. Soon, the entire organization would be shaken up from top to bottom, drawn into Hitler's new war, with consequences HJ members would never have imagined. Below: Hitler Youths on bicycles with publicity signs saying "Are you a German boy?
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A common scene in the German countryside--Hitler Youths on a brisk military-style hike, singing one of the numerous HJ or Nazi marching songs they've memorized. Below: The summer solstice is celebrated with HJ members leaping over the Sonnenwendfeuer. Below: Roll call for year-old Jungvolks at camp. Jungvolks ride atop older HJ members to compete in "Knight Fights. Air raid training for Jungvolks involves a rope tug with gas masks. Observations by city residents, regarding lost bicycles and bicycles being damaged, have been of great help to the organisers of Tartu Smart Bike Share.
Sain aru Loen veel. Tartu Smart Bikes have traveled 1. Add comment. Only registered users can comment this article! Login failed. Name needs to be fewer than 32 characters long.
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